Modern and Contemporary
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Portrait of Father Aloysius Kelley: President of Fairfield University, CT
Artist: Everett Raymond Kinstler (New York City, 1926 – 2019) Primary
Refers specifically to those male clergy who perform sacrificial, ritualistic, mediatorial, interpretative, or ministerial functions. In modern usage, females may be called "priests" too.
A Roman Catholic order for men founded in 1540 by St. Ignatius of Loyola, a Spanish soldier who experienced a religious conversion while convalescing from a battle wound. It is a non-contemplative order requiring strict obedience, compliance with Ignatius' Spiritual Exercises, and special loyalty to the pope. The Jesuits abandoned many medieval practices including obligatory regular penances or fasts; a common dress; and the choral recitation of the liturgical office. Other innovations include their very centralized form of authority with life tenure for the head of the order; gradation of members; a probationary period of many years before final vows; and lack of a female branch. Jesuits carry out many kinds of missionary work with special emphasis on education; the order has founded many colleges and universities throughout the world. The Jesuits have been leading apologists for the Roman Catholic Church, particularly during the Counter-Reformation. In more recent times, the order has been highly influential in modernizing the Church.
Refers to the branch of Christianity characterized by a uniform, highly developed ritual canon and organizational structure with doctrinal roots based in the teachings of the Apostles of Jesus Christ in the first century, in the Alexandrian school of theology, and in Augustinian thought. In this religious branch, faith is considered an acceptance of revelation; revelation appears as doctrine. In juridical terms, it refers to the branch of Christianity distinguished as a unified, monolithic sacramental system under the governance of papal authority. Throughout much of its history, the seat of the Pope has been in Rome, thus "Roman Catholicism" is often used to distinguish this concept from the Orthodox Catholic church.
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